Dalits are the Shudras of the Vedic Age; became untouchables later. Before the advent of the Aryans, they had a developed civilization and culture. However, when the Aryans came to this land, they were able to subjugate these Aboriginals by means of their deceptive trickery. Nevertheless Dalits, the modern Shudras never fully yielded to their subjugation. So from time to time, many movements took place to overthrow. the burden of slavery and subjugation. I am going to make here a brief introduction to these movements.
Satya Shodhak Movement
The movement was started by Jyotiba Fule and its main aim was to liberate the Shudras and AtiShudras from social oppression. He rejected the system of priesthood and caste hierarchy. He was against the blind faith and superstition that attacked most vigorously. He was the first to open the schools for lower castes and girls. In this great work his wife Savitri Bai Fule made a great contribution. She was the first principal and co-founder of the first school for girls in India. Jyotiba Fule founded the Satya Shodhak Samaj on Sept 24, 1873. The Samaj turned the Aryan Supremacy theory upside down and established that the aboriginals were a developed civilization and the Aryans subjugated them by means of their craft.
Nam Shudra Movement
This movement was led by the Nam Shudra community in the eastern districts of Bengal. It was an effort to obliterate social backwardness and stigma imposed by the upper castes. The lower caste were called Chhotoloks and the upper castes were called bhadraloks. So this movement was against the Bhadraloks’ oppression of the chhotoloks. See more at Banglapedia
Adi Dravid Movement
Adi Dravid is the term used in the state of Tamil Nadu to denote Dalits. The term was used by E V Ramaswami Periyar. It means the ” the original natives”. To see more click here.
Adi Dharm Movement
Ad Dharm movement, the glorious Dalit movement that not only envisaged an egalitarian social set-up but also struggled hard for the same, was founded formerly on June 11, 1926 in village Muggowal near Mahilpur (Hoshiarpur) under the dynamic leadership of Babu Mangu Ram.
Ad Dharm is a name of the indigenous religion of the Dalits of the region who are the natives of this land ( India ). The invading Aryans subjugated them and established their rule over the natives. They see to it that the culture and religion of the natives had to be wiped out fully so that they could not stage a revolt. Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia thought it appropriate to relocate the lost native religion in order to re-establish sovereign Dalit Raj once again. He named his movement deliberately after the name of the religion of the natives: Ad Dharm. Thus Ad Dharm is both ‘Religion’ as well as ‘Movement’.
With gratitude to http://www.ambedkartimes.com
Adi Andhra Movement
It was a widespread movement in Andhra Pradesh mainly led by the Malas and the Madigas (the untouchable castes). The movement denounced the Hindu scriptures responsible for their degradation.
They applied the concept of ‘Adi’ to represent their own communities, the term Adi indicates as the ‘First Born’ or ‘Original Inhabitants’ of that region or the original sons of the soil. In other words, the prefix, Adi denoted that they were vanquished by the Aryan nomads.
To counter the ‘Adi’ concept, the Brahmins gave a new name to the untouchables, ‘Panchama’, which was in use till the third decade of this century. Even Gandhi used it in his Young India for a long time, where the idea of ‘Panchama’ justified the age-long evil tradition of the Hindu society that had thrown the untouchables into the hell of caste bias since unknown antiquity.
It is important to note that 50,000 people from two districts renamed themselves as ‘Adi-Andhras’
Click here to read more at DALITCRY.
Adi Karnatak Movement
Adi Karnataka is a term used by the Ministry of Home Affairs (India) to refer to the members of one of the Kannadigas aboriginals who are primarily indigenous to the Karnataka state. In 1836 British traveller Mr. Kristopher Fellowman studied the history and contributed significantly to archive his research on the Adi-Karnataka dynasty ,also called ‘Samantha’ and ‘moola kannadiga kula’ a once wealthy people belonging to the upper caste in ‘Kshatriya’s Kula'(a ruling caste status lent to kings) several centuries ago .The Samanthas bifurcated their roles and responsibilities into two sub groups: commonly called in Kannada as ‘Edgai’ and ‘Balgai’,which translates to left hand and right hand respectively,quite literally meaning the left and right political wings.The right wing consisted of monarchs and administrators while the Left wing was responsible for general duties like farming,hunting and security of the state.